Yuan dynasty. Yuan dynasty, Wade-Giles romanization Yüan, also called Mongol dynasty, dynasty established by Mongol nomads that ruled portions and eventually all of China from the early 13th century to 1368. The Yuan (Mongol) empire (c. 1300), showing the extent reached under Kublai Khan.Click to see full answer. Keeping this in consideration, when did the Mongols ruled China in the Yuan Dynasty?The Yuan Dynasty was established by the Mongols and ruled China from 1271 to 1368 CE. Their first emperor was Kublai Khan (r. 1260-1279 CE) who finally defeated the Song Dynasty which had reigned in China since 960 CE.Additionally, what kind of government did the Yuan dynasty have? ? ??? ?? ???? (Dai Ön Ulus, “Great Yuan State” in Middle Mongolian) Government Monarchy Emperor • 1259–1294 Kublai Khan • 1332–1368 Toghon Temür Keeping this in consideration, who overthrew the Yuan Dynasty? Ming Dynasty What came after Yuan Dynasty?The Yuan Dynasty was a period of time when China was under the rule of the Mongol Empire. The Yuan ruled China from 1279 to 1368. It was followed by the Ming Dynasty.