The scientific study of microorganisms began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1880s, Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse.Click to see full answer. Similarly, how were microbes first discovered and discovered?The existence of microscopic organisms was discovered during the period 1665-83 by two Fellows of The Royal Society, Robert Hooke and Antoni van Leeuwenhoek. In Micrographia (1665), Hooke presented the first published depiction of a microganism, the microfungus Mucor. how was Microbiology discovered? Antonie van Leeuwenhoek is considered a father of microbiology as he observed and experimented with microscopic organisms in 1676, using simple microscopes of his own design. Scientific microbiology developed in the 19th century through the work of Louis Pasteur and in medical microbiology Robert Koch. Consequently, how do scientists study microorganisms? Metagenomics. To study biological function, researchers instead use a technique called metagenomics. The term “metagenome” refers to the complete genome of every microbe in a sample taken from a natural habitat. Using metagenomics, researchers can sequence 10,000 microbial genomes in a single experiment.How did Leeuwenhoek discover bacteria?Antonie van Leeuwenhoek used single-lens microscopes, which he made, to make the first observations of bacteria and protozoa. His extensive research on the growth of small animals such as fleas, mussels, and eels helped disprove the theory of spontaneous generation of life.