What was Darwin’s greatest contribution to science, and how did he develop it? Theory of evolution by natural selection. Darwin observed and collected specimens from all over the world and compared their similarities and differences.Click to see full answer. Keeping this in consideration, what was Charles Darwin’s main contribution to science?Darwin’s greatest contribution to science is that he completed the Copernican Revolution by drawing out for biology the notion of nature as a system of matter in motion governed by natural laws. With Darwin’s discovery of natural selection, the origin and adaptations of organisms were brought into the realm of science.Likewise, what did Charles Darwin contribute to biology? Charles Darwin was a British naturalist who proposed the theory of biological evolution by natural selection. Darwin defined evolution as “descent with modification,” the idea that species change over time, give rise to new species, and share a common ancestor. Just so, how did Charles Darwin influence the world? Charles Darwin, of course, is the father of the theory of evolution. He traveled the world and viewed all different kinds of organisms, wrote a ground-breaking book “On The Origin of Species,” and changed scientific thought forever. Darwin’s ideas have touched on a great many aspects of modern-day humans’ lives.What is Darwin’s theory of natural selection? Darwin’s Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection More individuals are produced each generation that can survive. Phenotypic variation exists among individuals and the variation is heritable. Those individuals with heritable traits better suited to the environment will survive.