The digestive system converts the foods we eat into their simplest forms, like glucose (sugars), amino acids (that make up protein) or fatty acids (that make up fats). The broken-down food is then absorbed into the bloodstream from the small intestine and the nutrients are carried to each cell in the body.Click to see full answer. Similarly, it is asked, what body system is responsible for breaking down food? digestive Secondly, how are dietary nutrients processed in the digestive system? The small intestine absorbs most of the nutrients in your food, and your circulatory system passes them on to other parts of your body to store or use. Special cells help absorbed nutrients cross the intestinal lining into your bloodstream. In this manner, how food is broken down into nutrients for absorption? Digestive juices break down food into the tiniest nutrient components. Proteins are broken down to amino acids; fats are broken down to fatty acids and glycerol; and carbohydrates are broken down into simple sugars for absorption of these vital nutrients.What happens to the food that is not broken down in the digestive system?Most of the digestion occurs in the first part of the small intestine while the absorption of broken down nutrients, water, vitamins, and minerals occurs in the rest of it. Those components of food that are not needed or cannot be absorbed are excreted from the colon in stool.